Almanac User GuidePhorge Administrator and User Documentation (Application User Guides)
Using Almanac to manage devices and services.
Almanac is a device and service inventory application. It allows you to create lists of devices and services that humans and other applications can use to keep track of what is running where.
Almanac is an infrastructure application that will normally be used by administrators to configure advanced Phorge features. In most cases, normal users will very rarely interact with Almanac directly.
At a very high level, Almanac can be thought of as a bit like a DNS server. Callers ask it for information about services, and it responds with details about which devices host those services. However, it can respond to a broader range of queries and provide more detailed responses than DNS alone can.
Today, the primary use cases for Almanac are internal to Phorge:
- Providing a list of build servers to Drydock so it can run build and integration tasks.
- Configuring Phorge to operate in a cluster setup.
Beyond internal uses, Almanac is a general-purpose service and device inventory application and can be used to configure and manage other types of service and hardware inventories, but these use cases are currently considered experimental and you should be exercise caution in pursuing them.
Here's a quick example of how you might configure Almanac to solve a real-world problem. This section describes configuration at a high level to give you an introduction to Almanac concepts and a better idea of how the pieces fit together.
In this scenario, we want to use Drydock to run some sort of build process. To do this, Drydock needs hardware to run on. We're going to use Almanac to give Drydock a list of hosts it should use.
In this scenario, Almanac will work a bit like a DNS server. When we're done, Drydock will be able to query Almanac for information about a service (like build.mycompany.com) and get back information about which hosts are part of that service and which addresses/ports it should connect to.
Before getting started, we need to create a network. For simplicity, let's suppose everything will be connected through the public internet. If you haven't already, you'd create a "Public Internet" network first.
Once we have a network, we create the actual physical or virtual hosts by launching instances in EC2, or racking and powering on some servers, or already having some hardware on hand we want to use. We set the hosts up normally and connect them to the internet (or another network).
After the hosts exist, we add them to Almanac as devices, like build001.mycompany.com, build002.mycompany.com, and so on. In Almanac, devices are usually physical or virtual hosts, although you could also use it to inventory other types of devices and hardware.
For each device, we add an interface. This is just an address and port on a particular network. Since we're going to connect to these hosts over SSH, we'll add interfaces on the standard SSH port 22. An example configuration might look a little bit like this:
Now, we create the service. This is what we'll tell Drydock about, and it can query for information about this service to find connected devices. Here, we'll call it build.mycompany.com.
After creating the service, add bindings to the interfaces we configured above. This will tell Drydock where it should actually connect to.
Once this is complete, we're done in Almanac and can continue configuration in Drydock, which is outside the scope of this example. Once everything is fully configured, this is how Almanac will be used by Drydock:
- Drydock will query information about build.mycompany.com from Almanac.
- Drydock will get back a list of bound interfaces, among other data.
- The interfaces provide information about addresses and ports that Drydock can use to connect to the actual devices.
You can now add and remove devices to the pool by binding them and unbinding them from the service.
The major concepts in Almanac are devices, interfaces, services, bindings, networks, and namespaces.
Devices: Almanac devices represent physical or virtual devices. Usually, they are hosts (like web001.mycompany.net), although you could use devices to keep inventory of any other kind of device or physical asset (like phones, laptops, or office chairs).
Each device has a name, and may have properties and interfaces.
Interfaces: Interfaces are listening address/port combinations on devices. For example, if you have a webserver host device named web001.mycompany.net, you might add an interface on port 80.
Interfaces tell users and applications where they should connect to to access services and devices.
Services: These are named services like build.mycompany.net that work a bit like DNS. Humans or other applications can look up a service to find configuration information and learn which devices are hosting the service.
Each service has a name, and may have properties and bindings.
Bindings: Bindings are connections between services and interfaces. They tell callers which devices host a named service.
Networks: Networks allow Almanac to distinguish between addresses on different networks, like VPNs vs the public internet.
If you have hosts in different VPNs or on private networks, you might have multiple devices which share the same IP address (like 10.0.0.3). Networks allow Almanac to distinguish between devices with the same address on different sections of the network.
Namespaces: Namespaces let you control who is permitted to create devices and services with particular names. For example, the namespace mycompany.com controls who can create services with names like a.mycompany.com and b.mycompany.com.
Almanac namespaces allow you to control who can create services and devices with certain names.
If you keep a list of cattle as devices with names like cow001.herd.myranch.moo, cow002.herd.myranch.moo, you might have some applications which query for all devices in *.herd.myranch.moo, and thus want to limit who can create devices there in order to prevent mistakes.
If a namespace like herd.myranch.moo exists, users must have permission to edit the namespace in order to create new services, devices, or namespaces within it. For example, a user can not create cow003.herd.myranch.moo if they do not have edit permission on the herd.myranch.moo namespace.
When you try to create a cow003.herd.myranch.moo service (or rename an existing service to have that name), Almanac looks for these namespaces, then checks the policy of the first one it finds:
|cow003.herd.ranch.moo||"Nearest" namespace, considered first.|
|moo||"Farthest" namespace, considered last.|
Note that namespaces treat names as lists of domain parts, not as strict substrings, so the namespace herd.myranch.moo does not prevent someone from creating goatherd.myranch.moo or goat001.goatherd.myranch.moo. The name goatherd.myranch.moo is not part of the herd.myranch.moo namespace because the initial subdomain differs.
If a name belongs to multiple namespaces, the policy of the nearest namespace is controlling. For example, if myranch.moo has a very restrictive edit policy but shed.myranch.moo has a more open one, users can create devices and services like rake.shed.myranch.moo as long as they can pass the policy check for shed.myranch.moo, even if they do not have permission under the policy for myranch.moo.
Users can edit services and devices within a namespace if they have edit permission on the service or device itself, as long as they don't try to rename the service or device to move it into a namespace they don't have permission to access.